Funeral March commemorates some of those who died in the liberation struggle inside the borders of South Africa. Both overt and clandestine methods to suppress resistance and counter armed actions by opponents of Apartheid were used by the State between 1960 - 1994. 


33" x 41"  Mixed Media                                                   (1999)




Overt methods included bannings and banishment, detention without trial, judicial executions and public order policing. Covert operations included torture, extra-judicial killings and killing that occurred as result of support for surrogate forces [third force]. Judicial executions numbered more than 2,500 between 1960-1994, with 1,154 between 1976-1985. Blacks comprised 95% and these deaths and represent one of the highest rates of judicial killing in the world. The death penalty was used primarily for criminal offences but was also used for those found guilty of political offences. The death penalty could be imposed under:


bulletThe General Laws Amendment Act, 1962
bulletThe Terrorism Act, 1967
bulletThe Internal Security Act,1976


The names depicted in Funeral March represent people who died in the liberation struggle as a result of various types of security force actions according to the findings of the TRC and are listed in their Final Report, Volume II, The State Inside South Africa, 1960-1994. Some were victims of what the TRC referred to as 'targeted killing' the aim of which was to ensure the individual's 'permanent removal from society'. Many of these victims were perceived as a threat to South Africa's security but were unable to be charged either for lack of evidence or because the government feared it would lead to greater mobilization. The individuals involved were frequently high-profile political figures.


Other names refer to the TRC category of killing known as 'abduction, interrogation and killing' where the primary purpose was to obtain information and death followed, often to protect the information received.